Boundaries, International

Boundaries, International
   Before the imposition of British colonial rule, Burmese kingdoms did not have fixed boundaries; rather, they extended their power and influence in a circle (mandala) radiating outward from the royal capital, its perimeter determined by the fluid dynamics of power politics and war between competing states as well as the quality and quantity of human and material resources at the ruler's disposal. Thus, at certain times during the Toungoo and Konbaung Dynasties, the Burmese realm included much of modern Siam (Thailand), Laos, and northeastern India, while after the Second Anglo-Burmese War it encompassed only Upper Burma and, loosely, certain ethnic minority areas, such as the Shan States.
   In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the British made treaties with neighboring states that fixed, at least roughly, the international boundaries of modern Burma. Following the Government of Burma Act (1935), neighboring jurisdictions in British India were separated from Burma by an international boundary. After the country became independent in 1948, the governments of U Nu and Ne Win and the post-1988 military regime concluded further territorial and boundary agreements. At present, Burma's land boundaries total 6,285 kilometers (3,906 miles) in length: 2,227 kilometers (1,384 miles) with the People's Republic of China, 2,098 kilometers (1,304 miles) with Thailand, 1,453 kilometers (903 miles) with India, 235 kilometers (146 miles) with Laos (the entire boundary constituting the midchannel of the Mekong River), and 272 kilometers (169 miles) with Bangladesh.
   Sea boundaries totaling 2,228 kilometers (1,385 miles) front the Bay of Bengal, the Gulf of Martaban (Mottama), and the Andaman Sea, with territorial jurisdiction extending 12 miles from shore and an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of 200 nautical miles beyond the territorial waters. Such demarcation is important, given the large quantities of natural gas found within the EEZs, exploited after 1988 with the participation of foreign oil companies.
   Until recently, both Burma's land and sea boundaries have been poorly defended: insurgents, especially those belonging to the Communist Party of Burma, the Kachin Independence Army/Organization (KIA/KIO), the Karen National Union, and the Mong Tai Army, controlled much of the China-Burma and Thai-Burma border area, gaining major financial support from the black market and opium trade. The Bangladesh-Burma border was unsettled because of the determination of the Ne Win and State Law and Order Restoration Council regimes to expel Muslim Rohingyas from Arakan (Rakhine) State and the operations of Muslim guerrillas, known as mujahadin. The India-Burma border was destabilized by Chin and Naga insurgents, who passed freely between both countries. Burma's waters were regularly infiltrated by foreign vessels, especially Thai fishermen poaching the country's rich marine resources.
   After 1988, cease-fires with ethnic minority armed groups and Border Area Development programs increased the central government's leverage along the country's boundaries, though areas along the China-Burma border under the control of the United Wa State Army remain closed to the Tatmadaw. Purchases of naval vessels and patrol boats since 1988 have enabled the government to more adequately defend its sea boundaries. The State Peace and Development Council's policy of achieving friendly and cooperative relations with all neighboring states has also played a major role in stabilizing its international boundaries.

Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar). . 2014.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • No Boundaries International — is a 501(c)3 non profit, faith based organization headquartered in Edmond, Oklahoma that provides speakers, training, medical assistance and evangelism. NBI works in countries such as Sierra Leone, West Africa, Haiti, Israel, Mexico, and inner… …   Wikipedia

  • International human rights law — refers to the body of international law designed to promote and protect human rights at the international, regional and domestic levels. As a form of international law, international human rights law is primarily made up of treaties, agreements… …   Wikipedia

  • International psychology — International or global psychology is an emerging branch of psychology that focuses on the worldwide enterprise of psychology in terms of communication and networking, cross cultural comparison, scholarship, practice, and pedagogy. Often, the… …   Wikipedia

  • International Law —     International Law     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► International Law     International law has been defined to be the rules which determine the conduct of the general body of civilized states in their dealings with each other (American and… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • International economics — is a branch of economics with three main subdisciplines international trade, monetary theory and international finance. * International trade is a study of the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries. * Monetary theory is a …   Wikipedia

  • International Health — International health, also called geographic medicine or global health , is a field of health care, usually with a public health emphasis, dealing with health across regional or national boundaries. One subset of international medicine, travel… …   Wikipedia

  • International marketing — refers to the marketing a company carries out in markets outside its core constituency. This strategy uses an extension of the techniques used in the home country of a firm. [ Marketing , McGraw Hill] Introduction to International… …   Wikipedia

  • International political economy — (IPE) is an academic discipline within the social sciences that analyzes international relations in combination with political economy. As an interdisciplinary field it draws on many distinct academic schools, most notably political science and… …   Wikipedia

  • International — or internationally most often describes interaction between nations, or encompassing two or more nations, constituting a group or association having members in two or more nations, or generally reaching beyond national boundaries. In American… …   Wikipedia

  • International — In ter*na tion*al, a. [Pref. inter + national: cf. F. international.] [1913 Webster] 1. Between or among nations; pertaining to the intercourse of nations; participated in by two or more nations; common to, or affecting, two or more nations.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”